Congenital heart disease is a heart abnormality present at birth. The defect has one or more abnormalities in your heart's structure that you're born with. CHD is the most common type of birth defect.
The Defect can be affected:
1. The Heart walls
2. The Heart Valves
3. The Blood vessels
4. The Arteries and veins near the heart
This problem can disrupt the normal flow of blood through the heart. The blood flow can slow down, go in the wrong direction or to the wrong place, or be blocked completely. There are various types of congenital heart defects. Defects range from simple to complex, simple defect might cause no problems, the complex defect can cause life-threatening complications.
Techniques like echocardiogram and fetal ultrasound can show any abnormalities in the fetus heart, before the child's birth. Dr. Suresh Rao says- " The best time to detect is between 16 to 18 weeks of pregnancy. After a child is born doctor can detect the CHD by listening to the murmur using a stethoscope. Depending on the abnormal heart bites further, diagnosis can be made. The doctor may ask to perform some test such as an Electrocardiogram, Echocardiogram or a Chest X-Ray.
Signs and symptoms of CHD in new-borns include.
1. Rapid breathing
2. Cyanosis - babies skin become bluish near lips, and fingernails
4. Poor blood circulation
5. Poor weight gain
6. Lung infections
Much congenital heart defect shows few or no sign or symptoms. They are often not diagnosed until the child is old.
1. Aortic stenosis
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD)
3. Coarctation of the aorta (COA)
4. Ebstein anomaly
5. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
6. Patent foramen ovale (PFO)
7. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
8. Truncus arteriosus
9. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Congenital heart disease occurs as a result of early development problem in the heart structure. The defect typically interferes with the normal flow of blood through the heart, which may affect breathing.
If a mother has had rubella while pregnant could have affected your heart development.
If a mother having type 1 or type 2 diabetes might have interfered with the development of babies’ heart. Gestational diabetes generally doesn't increase the risk of heart defect. (Gestational diabetes is a condition where a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy)
Congenital heart disease appears to run in families and is associated with many genetic syndromes. children with the down syndrome often get heart defects.
Taking certain prescription drugs during pregnancy can cause congenital heart and other birth defects.
Using alcohol or illegal drugs during pregnancy can increase a child's risk of having a heart defect.
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congenital heart disease caused by abnormal formation of the heart during fetal development. In most cases when a baby is born with the congenital heart disease there is no reason for it. Doctors don't always know why a baby has a congenital heart defect.
The scientist knows that sometimes congenital heart defect can be related to an abnormality in the number of an infant's chromosomes such as Down syndrome, genes defect or environmental factors. In most cases, there is no identifiable cause for the heart defect, and they generally considered to be caused by inheritance. p>
The treatment of CHD depends on the type and severity of the defect. Some babies have a mild heart defect and they can cure by their own, whereas others may have severed defect that requires extensive treatment. your baby may need medications, surgery, or other procedures, you will need to see a heart specialist on a regular basis.
There are various medications that can help the heart work more efficiently.
Some of the complication associated with a congenital heart defect can prevent with using certain devices. Dr. Suresh Rao says-" This treatment is called closure of device. For this treatment, we required a certain prerequisite and that should be assisted by a cardiologist before we proceed a device Closure".
Catheter Procedure doctor repairs certain congenital heart defects without surgically opening the chest and heart. During this process, the doctor will insert a catheter (thin tube) into a vein in the leg and will guide it up to the heart. to correct the defect doctor will use small tools threaded through the catheter.
Open Heart surgery is required when the Catheter procedure is not enough to repair the heart defect. Dr. Suresh Rao from Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani says" in today's practice open heart surgery gives 100% success rate. Once the surgery is done the child is a cured for the lifetime. They can live a normal life, can take part in sports, girls can become a mother. There is no side effect of this surgery".
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