Bone marrow is a spongy material that fills the Bones. It contains stem cells which develop into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. If the bone marrow malfunctions due to blood cancer, then a deficiency of these cells occurs. This results infections, bleeding and ultimately death. Bone marrow transplantation is a procedure which includes replacement of diseased marrow by healthy marrow. Bone Marrow Transplant is done to Cure Blood Cancer.
In this type, after treating cancer, the team of doctors collect patients own stem cells from blood and freezes them. Next, patient have a very high dose of chemotherapy and rarely radiotherapy. Then frozen stem cells are put back in patients’ blood through a tube placed in a vein. Stem cells take 24 hours to reach bone marrow. Then stem cells start to grow, multiply and help the marrow to make healthy blood cells.
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In this type patient receives chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Next, patients receive donors stem cells through a tube placed in patient’s vein. It is most important that donor bone marrow should be matched to patient. The cells in an Allogeneic method are not typically frozen. So patient can receive donor’s cells immediately after chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
If the patient cannot get right donor, then by using this method cells are collected from the blood of a new born’s Umbilical Cord.
Summary: In Bone marrow transplantation, healthy stem cells are transplanted into patient’s body after chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Stem cells are collected from patient’s body, donor or cord blood.