Bone Marrow Transplant
By Magnus Admin Oct 08, 2018

Bone marrow transplantation is a special therapy for patients with certain cancers or other diseases. It is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or diseased bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant also called a stem cell transplant.

A bone marrow transplant might be important if your bone marrow is not working and doesn't deliver enough healthy blood cells.

Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside your bones that makes blood-forming cells. These cells turn into blood cells including:

  • White blood cells to fight infections.
  • Red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body.
  • Platelets to control bleeding. helps with blood clotting.
  • Now a day Bone marrow transplant is called Stem Cells Transplant. Earlier the stem cells were collected from the bone marrow. Today, stell cells are generally gathered from the blood, rather than the bone marrow.

    Why bone marrow and stem cells important?

    A part of your bones called bone marrow makes platelets. Marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside bones. It contains cells. These cells can transform into a few different kinds of cells. They can turn into any type of blood cell or into born marrow cells.

    Type of Bone Marrow Transplants

  • Autologous bone marrow transplant.
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplant.
  • Umbilical cord blood transplant.

  • Related Post - Bone Marrow Transplantation in Blood Cancer

    Donor stem cells can be collected in two ways:

    1. Bone marrow harvest

    In this procedure, minor surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. The donor will be asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The bone marrow is removed back of both hip bones.

    2. Leukapheresis

    This procedure the donor is given several days of shots to help stem cells move from the bone marrow into the blood. The blood is removed from the donor through the IV line. The part of the white cell which contains stem cells is then separated in a machine and removed later for the recipient. The red cells are returned to the donor.

    What disease a Bone marrow transplant treat?

    Cancer, Bone marrow diseases like aplastic anaemia and Other immune system or genetic diseases.

  • Acute leukemia
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Bone marrow failure syndromes
  • Chronic leukemia
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Immune deficiencies
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Multiple myelomas
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Plasma cell disorders
  • POEMS syndrome
  • Primary amyloidosis
  • Risk of Bone Marrow Transplant

    The risk depends on the type of transplant, the age, type of disease and condition of receiving a person. Although some people experience minimal problems while others may develop any complication and need to admit in the hospital.

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    The complication includes:

  • Stem cell failure
  • Organ damage
  • Infections
  • Cataracts
  • Infertility
  • New Cancers
  • Graft-versus-host disease, a possible risk when stem cells come from donors

    If you receive a transplant that uses stem cells from a donor, you may be at risk of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

    the donated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells view the recipient's body as foreign, and the donated cells/bone marrow attack the body.

    Risk of Bone Marrow Transplant

    Some people have a very mild form which does not last for long, in other cases, GVHD may be life-threatening in some cases. some people may have GvHD over many months or even years.

    There are two forms of GVHD:

    1. Acute graft versus host disease

    This type of GVHD happens earlier, during the first month of the transplant. It affects to:

  • Skin
  • igestive tract
  • liver

  • Related Post - Stem Cell Therapy in Autism

    2. Chronic graft versus host disease

  • signs and symptoms include:
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Persistent cough
  • Vision changes, such as dry eyes
  • Skin changes, including scarring under the skin or skin stiffness
  • Rash
  • Yellow tint to your skin or the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
  • Dry mouth
  • Mouth sores
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
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